Popular Posts!

LEVIS JEAN SHOP!

Monday, June 26, 2017

Electricity to Transform Rural Myanmar


STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • 84% of households in rural Myanmar have no electricity connection, creating hardship, perpetuating poverty, and stalling development
  • The Government of Myanmar, with the help of the World Bank, has developed a National Electrification Plan that calls for universal electricity access by 2030, or 7.2 million new connections
  • The National Electrification Plan will get off the ground with $400 million in funds from the World Bank’s International Development Association, which is expected to bring electricity to over six million people by 2021 and mobilize further investments

Kyaw San, a high school student in Buu Tar Suu village in Myanmar’s Yangon Division, finds that studying at night can be a real challenge. It gets especially difficult during the rainy season when the old solar-powered lamps he relies on cannot be charged, forcing him to study by dim candlelight. 
Win Win Nwe, a grade 5 student, faces a similar situation when she studies for exams. “If the battery is charged I have light, otherwise I must work by candlelight.” Her family can’t always afford to buy candles, adding a layer of difficulty to an activity many take for granted.
Such stories are common all over Myanmar. In a country with tremendous natural riches, only 30% of the population is connected to the electricity grid. Average annual per capita electricity consumption is 160 kilowatt-hours, one-twentieth the world average. In the countryside, the situation is even worse. As of 2014, only 16% of rural households had a connection.
The lack of electricity means that people live without light, or the basic household appliances that other people use on a daily basis. Small businesses are unable to get off the ground, and outside investments that could create jobs are unlikely in the absence of a reliable power supply. Markets cannot operate at night, and clinics cannot refrigerate medicines.
In 2014, the World Bank helped the Government of Myanmar develop a comprehensive and ambitious National Electrification Plan with support from the Bank’s Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The plan’s goal is to bring electricity to everyone in Myanmar by the year 2030. This means 7.2 million new household connections over the next 15 years, requiring a doubling of the current rate of grid extension and a total of $6 billion in investments. For a country like Myanmar that is just re-emerging from economic isolation, this is a huge undertaking.
The plan calls for a phased approach: 50% access by 2020, 75% by 2025, and universal access by 2030. This will be achieved through a two-pronged approach: rapid extension of the national grid, coupled with off-grid electricity, including modern solar home systems and mini-grids, to rural and remote communities that would otherwise have to wait years for a grid connection. The first phase of the plan calls for 1.7 million households to be connected to electricity by 2020 and an investment of approximately $700 million.
The first steps to turn the plan into reality have now been taken. On September 16, 2015, the Bank approved a $400 million International Development Association (IDA) credit to Myanmar for both grid extension and off-grid electrification. Support from the Bank’s Asia Sustainable and Alternative Energy Program (ASTAE) helped prepare the investment operation. With the IDA funds, 750,000 households will be connected to the grid by 2021 and off-grid electricity will be extended to another 500,000 households.
In addition, 23,000 new “community” connections for clinics, schools and religious buildings will be created, and over 150,000 public lights will be put up. The credit will also fund technical assistance to build capacity among local staff to implement the plan, improve policies and regulation around electricity and renewable energy, and develop a framework to plan out future electrification and monitor results.
The plan will align technical and financial support from development partners, central and local government agencies, and the private sector toward a common goal. One year after the plan was prepared, approximately $550 million from development partners has been confirmed or is under preparation, including this World Bank credit. At the same time the government demonstrated its commitment to the plan by establishing a National Electrification Executive Committee, with co-secretariats responsible for electrification planning, investment, and donor coordination.
As the plan is rolled out, the electricity it will bring has the potential to transform life in rural Myanmar. Students will be able to study in the evening, local clinics can provide better services, shops can stay open late, and new local industries and enterprises will have a chance to thrive.
“If we can have electricity here it would be great for us,” says Kyi Htwe, another resident of Buu Tar Suu village. “I want to see my village to have lights like the other villages. Also for my country—I would like to see lights everywhere in the country, even the remote places.”

Ref:http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/09/16/electricity-to-transform-rural-myanmar

Investment Opportunities in Mining Sector in Myanmar

Investment Opportunities in Mining Sector in Myanmar 



 

  1. 1. The Republic of the Union of Myanmar Ministry of MinesInvestment Opportunities in Mining Sector Presented by – U Win Htein Director General Department of Mines6/15/2012 Ministry of Mines 1
  2. 2. 1. Introduction ( i ) Organization Chart of the Ministry ( ii ) Legal Framework2. Mineral Occurrence in Myanmar3. Investment Information ( i ) Procedure for the Foreign Investment ( ii ) Tax Regime in Mineral Sector ( iii ) Royalty ( iv ) Categories of Mining Permits ( v ) Production Sharing Contract ( P.S.C ) System ( vi ) FDI List4. Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction Ministry of Mines is the governmentauthority responsible for implementation ofthe policy, legislation and enforcement ofLaw, Rules and Regulations in the miningsector.6/15/2012 3
  4. 4. Organisation Chart of the Ministry Union Minister No.(1) No.(2) No.(3) Myanmar Myanmar Myanmar Department Department Mining Mining Mining Gems Salt Pearl of ofEnterprise Enterprise Enterprise Enterprise and Enterprise Geological Mines Marine Survey Chemical & Enterprise Mineral Exploration 6/15/2012 4
  5. 5. Myanmar is endowed with mineral resources such as copper,gold, lead, zinc, silver, tin and nickel and so on.Myanmar has a lot of potential for mining sector if we cancombine with our rich mineral deposits and newtechnologies.So, I would like to invite the investors in Mining Sectors asnot only FDI( Foreign Direct Investment ) but alsopartnership with local companies in Myanmar.6/15/2012 5
  6. 6. Legal FrameworkNow a days , MIC ( Myanmar Investment Commission) is trying topromulgate the new Myanmar Investment Law.The Union of Myanmar Mines Law was promulgated in September1994.Rules relating to the law followed in December 1996.At Present, Ministry of Mines is trying to amend the Myanmar MinesLaw with the advice of experts and publics.( i ) To facilitate the environmental conservation and Green Mining .(ii) To encourage for investments more easily and trustyfully.According to the Myanmar Mines law, all natural mineral depositsfound either on or under the soil of any land in the continental shelf aredeemed to be owned by the State.6/15/2012 6
  7. 7. 6/15/2012 7
  8. 8. GEOLOGICAL MAP OF MYANMAR ( 2008 ) • Compilation and Digital Geological map of Myanmar based on the 1:1M scale (1977) was completed in 2008 and printed in 1: 1 million scale. • It was registered and copy right at the Myanmar registration office in 2008.6/15/2012 8
  9. 9. 92° 94° LO 96° 98° 100° 102° H IT TH RU DI A NJ I ST N AL 28° IN NT U 28° O MINERAL BELTS OF MYANMAR T FR HR ST US ST RU YAN RU TH T A LA TH T HI M A US A G T HR LS N IL NG H SA K IR DI 26° MI 26° G ON IL L IFT SH L UP A G NA CHINA M ani pur K GO EAU 24° 24° MO INDEX T PLA 22° Man dalay 22° N Tin- Tungsten Belts MT . V I C TOR IA M t. SH A D OME Popa Antimony Belts Lead – Zinc – S ilver- Copper Belts THR 20° 20° UST Gold- Copper- Iron Belts je ctiv RIDG E Nickel- Chromite- Copper- Gold- Platinum Belts TH AIL AND e)18° 18° T Iron – Manganese Belt EAS ( pro The Precious S tone Belts ETY Yan gon M awlamyin g NIN Oil- Gas and Coal Belts16° 16° ADAMAN S EA 2 00 km14° 14°12° 12°10° 92° 6/15/2012 94° 96° 98° 100° 10° 102° 9
  10. 10. 6/15/2012 10
  11. 11. Ferrous Metals in Myanmar6/15/2012 11
  12. 12. Non Ferrous Metals in Myanmar6/15/2012 12
  13. 13. Coal & Industrial Metals in Myanmar6/15/2012 13
  14. 14. 6/15/2012 14
  15. 15. Major Minerals Produced by the CountryMajor minerals produced and exported are - Cathode Copper, Refined Lead, Refined Silver, Zinc Concentrate, Refined Tin, Tin Concentrates, Tin-wolfram Mixed Concentrates and Coal6/15/2012 15
  16. 16. Major minerals produced for domestic consumptions are- Gold Iron and Steel Limestone Industrial Minerals and Barites Powder6/15/2012 16
  17. 17. Gemstones such as Rubies, Sapphire, colored gemstone andJade are also exported.Myanmar have held emporiums for Jade, Gems and Pearlssince 1964 with the pricing based on Foreign Currencies atleast twice a year. ( sell through tender or competitivebidding )6/15/2012 17
  18. 18. 1. In accord with the policy of the Ministry of Mines, our ministry is not making own investment, but to encourage foreign and local investors to invest in the mining sector.2. The investor can invest as a foreign direct investment (FDI) or joint investment with local company.3. For investors who would like to do exploration to confirm the reserve of a deposit or to start with the grassroots exploration operations in a virgin land , they may apply accordingly clearly stating their intentions. 6/15/2012 18
  19. 19. 4. Funds required to conduct the prospecting, exploration and feasibility study are borne by the investor 100% at his own risk.5. Ministry of Mines not allowed to export the raw ore.6. Investor should be made value added (or) mineral processing.7. Ministry encourage to establish the processing plants with the latest technologies. 6/15/2012 19
  20. 20. Procedures for the Foreign Investment in Mining Sector1. Foreign companies have to send letter of courtesy call to the Union Minister through the respective Embassy in Myanmar to Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Ministry of Mines officially.2. The Union Minister or responsible officials will discuss the investment opportunities in mining sector mainly focus on mineral commodity and targeted area. 6/15/2012 20
  21. 21. 3. Site visit will be arranged if requested by the investors or company after technical discussion with responsible departments. Recommendation letter from the respective Embassy, letter of undertaking, tentative site visit schedule and passport copy are required to submit to the Ministry of Mines two week ahead.4. After the site visit, if the investor decided to invest in Myanmar, a proposal should submit to the Ministry of Mines and copy to relevant departments.5. Minerals prospecting, exploration and feasibility study are concerned to DGSE and other Mining Enterprises are responsible for mining operation and production stages. 6/15/2012 21
  22. 22. 6. The following documents should be included with the proposal: (a) Company Registration (b) Company Profile and other relevant facts about the company (c) Recommendation and endorsement of the respective Embassy in Myanmar (d) Financial Bank Statement (e) List of the Board of Directors (f) Initial work programme (g) Map of the proposed area with coordinates. 6/15/2012 22
  23. 23. 7. After getting the approval of the Ministry of Mines and the completion of all the require recommendation documents, the proposal and the Agreement Draft will send to the Myanmar Investment Commission ( MIC ) for Investment permit. 6/15/2012 23
  24. 24. Tax Regime in Mineral Sector6/15/2012 24
  25. 25. Dead Rent for one Square Km in Kyats Type Prospecting Exploration PeriodSr. of period Minerals 1st Yr 2nd Yr 1st Yr 2nd Yr 3rd Yr 4th Yr 5th Yr Industrial 1 Mineral (or) 50,000 100,000 100,000 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 Stone Metallic 2 100,000 200,000 200,000 400,000 800,000 1,200,000 1,600,000 Mineral Precious 3 Metallic 200,000 400,000 400,000 800,000 1,60,000 2,400,000 3,200,000 MineralRemark ;1. Extension Period subject to the approval of the Ministry or the Department 2. Exchange rate subject to daily exchange rate. 6/15/2012 25
  26. 26. Dead Rent for one Square Km in Kyats Feasibility Study Production Developing Period Type period Period Sr. of Minerals 1st Yr 2nd Yr 1st Yr 2nd Yr 3rd Yr 1-20 Yrs Industrial 1 Mineral (or) 800,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,600,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 Stone Metallic 2 1,600,000 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,100,000 2,400,000 3,000,000 Mineral Precious 3 Metallic 3,200,000 3,200,000 3,600,000 4,200,000 4,800,000 6,000,000 MineralRemark ;1. Extension Period subject to the approval of the Ministry or the Department 2. Exchange rate subject to daily exchange rate. 6/15/2012 26
  27. 27. RoyaltyAccording to Myanmar Mines Law For Metallic Minerals - 3 to 4 % For Precious Metallic Minerals - 4 to 5 % For Industrial Minerals - 1 to 3% For Ruby, Sapphire, Jade and Diamond - 20% For other Gems - 10 % Royalty is levied on value of mineral sold. It is a sale based royalty and not a production based royalty. 6/15/2012 27
  28. 28. Categories of Mining Permits1. Prospecting Permits - 1 yr2. Exploration Permits - 1 yr3. Feasibility Study - 1 yr4. Subsistence Mining Permits - 1 yr5. Small Scale Mining Permits - 5 yrs6. Large Scale Mining Permits - 25 yrs6/15/2012 28
  29. 29. Foreign Direct Investments(FDI) Enterprise Type ofSr. or Company Current status Location Mineral Dept:1. D.G.S.E Nobel Gold Gold and Exploration Bhamauk, Limited associated Sagaing Region (Russia ) minerals2. ME(1) (i) Conerstone Zinc Ore Production Shan State, Resources Minepon (Myanmar)Ltd Township (Australia) (ii) North Mining Ferronickle Feasibility Study Chin State, Investment Alloy Teetain Township, Co.,Ltd Hmewtaung Track (China) (iii) Asia Pacific Lead, Zinc , Feasibility Study Kantbalu - Wuntho Mining Ltd Copper, (Eastern Area) 6/15/2012 (China) Gold 29 Sagaing Region
  30. 30. Sr. Enterprise Company Type of Current Location or Mineral status Dept:5. ME(2) Myanmar 72% Tin Production Taninthayi Foreign Direct Investments(FDI) Ponepipet Co.,Ltd (Thai Land) Concentrate Region, Dawe Township, Heinda Mine6. ME(3) (i) Myanmar Ferro Nickel Developing Thabeikkyin CNMC Nickel Township, Co.,Ltd Mandalay ( China) Region Hteechaik Township, Sagaing Region (ii) Simco Song Marble Developing Nayputaung, Da Joint Stock Taungkoke Company Township, ( Viet Nam) Rakhine State 6/15/2012 30
  31. 31. 1. At present, Myanmar practice the production sharing contract ( P.S.C ) system.2. Our own Mines are already transferred to Private Companies.3. It is the policy of the Ministry of Mines not to make investment on its own, but to encourage foreign and local investors to invest with the advanced technologies.4. Well known deposits are already occupied by local Companies . So, Foreign Investor should be started from Grassroots Exploration.5. You are warmly welcome to invest in Mining Sector. 6/15/2012 31
  32. 32. Thank you very much for your kind attention. Ministry of Mines, Myanmar6/15/2012 32




Myanmar mineral-resources-presentation-2013

  1. 1. 2/18/2013 1 1 Dr Ye MyintSwe Director General DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEY AND MINERAL EXPLORATION MINISTRY OF MINES Regional Tectonic setting of Myanmar as a result of collision between Indian and -Asian plates
  2. 2. 2/18/2013 2 3 Record in Myanmar and the  Andaman Sea  for the Cenozoic oblique convergence of India  along Sundaland GIAC (Geodynamics of India Asian Collision) Project work in this region during recent decade.
  3. 3. 2/18/2013 3 5 Central Magmatic Belt Rakhine Coastal Strip Jade Mine belt Hukaung Basin Tagaung-Myitkyina belt Mogok Metamorphic Belt Shan –Thai Block includes Precambrian to Cretaceous rocks with Slate belt and Mogok Metamorphic belt to the west. This province is southeast continuation of Tibet Plateau. Central Tertiary sedimentary basins with oil-gas and coal occurrences. The N-S trending Central Magatic Belt at the centre. Western Ranges- fold-thrust belt with Chin flysch. Western Ranges and Central Lowlands includes northern continuation of Sunda arc. GENERALIZED GEOLOGICAL CROSS-SECTION ACROSS MYANMAR
  4. 4. 2/18/2013 4 7 Three modes of earthquake generation in the Andaman Sea (Schematic tectonic cross-section along Lat 11˚N) ANDAMAN SEA Volcanism TFTF Earthquakes Earthquakes Active spreading and transform faulting (TF) THAILAND EW INDIAN OCEAN Subduction Sunda Trench Basalt Subducting Slab ASTHENOSPHERE Over-riding slab (Basalt) Melting (to form magma) ASTHENOSPHERE Granite 9283 84 85 86 94 95 96 93 102 EA I B F K O C G K H L E I B F C G D H A E F J B K O L P I M D H L E I F G H L E I F J N M P O K FBN I M A E I M PL D GCOKG P D M N O P C G D H C B F A E H L J I M J N K L N M J K J Sittwe 020 20 40 60 80 100 Mile SCALE N 98 1009694 98 28 26 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 14 13 12 10 92 93 95 11 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1021019997959392 15 Magway Pyay Taungoo Loikaw YangonPathein Mawlamyine Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Muse Bhamo Banmauk Falam Mawlaik Myitkyina Putao Kawlin Pyinmana Paan 11 19 INDEX Mapping before 1996 Mapping after 1996 to 2011 UNDP GSEP 1974- 78/ JV 1996 Columbo 1973 - 75 ECAM 1980-84 GSI Data Taunggyi Tachileik Kengtung Mandalay Monywa Lashio Image Interpretation 1977 Data STATUS OF GEOLOGICAL MAPPING Area extent of Myanmar – 261227 sq miles Geological mapping area(on ground) ~70% Geological mapping(by the aid of Aerial Photos & RS-GIS techniques) ~30%
  5. 5. 2/18/2013 5 Geological Map of  Myanmar (1977) Geological Map Of Myanmar  (2008),   NINETYEAST RIDGE (projective) Yangon THR UST ADAMAN SEA SHAN PLATEAU MT. VICTORIA DOME NAGA H ILLS Manipur CHINA THAILAND INDIA HIMALAYAN FRONTAL THRUST IN JU TH RU ST Mt. Popa LOHIT THRUST THRUST THRUST DIS ANG N A G A SH IL LONG MIKIR UPLIFT 200 km 92° 10° 12° 14° 16° 18° 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 92° 94° 96° 98° 100° 102° 94° 96° 98° 100° 102° N 10° 12° 14° 16° 18° 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° MOGOK Mandalay Mawlamying Tin- Tungsten Belts Antimony Belts Lead – Zinc – Silver- Copper Belts Gold- Copper- Iron Belts Ni-Cr-Cu-Au-Pt Belts Iron – Manganese Belt The Precious Stone Belts Oil- Gas and Coal Belts MINERAL  PROVINCES  OF  MYANMAR 10 In Myanmar, Mineral occurrences include 1. Metallic ore minerals Iron & metals for steel alloys- Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo Base & non-ferrous metals – Pb, Zn, Cu, Sn, W, Sb & Ti Precious & rare metals- PGM, Au, Ag, Nb, Ta 2.Industrial minerals & non-metallic raw minerals Chemical & fertilizer minerals- Barite, fluorite, Gypsum, rock salt Ceramic & refractory minerals- clay, limestone, dolomite, feldspar, quartz, glass sand Construction & building materials- Decorative stones, road materials, limestone for cement 3. Preceous & semi-precious Gemstones Ruby, Sapphire, Jade, Diamond, etc 4. Fuel minerals (oil, natural gas, oil shale, coal,
  6. 6. 2/18/2013 6 Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Mawlaik Yangon Mawlamyaing Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Taungoo Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Sittwe Pathein 94° 28° 92° Muse CHINA LAOS THAILAND INDIA BayofBengal Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw Gulf of Matabin INDEX Magwe Sumprabum Shwegu Tanaing Mongmit Thabeikkyin Mabein Pyinmana Yamethin Letpadan Shwekyin Kyaikto Kawlin Pinlebu Homalin Hpa An Sagaing Haka 96° 98° 100° 102° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 94°92° 96° 98° 100° 102° Lead Zinc Silver N 020 20 40 60 80 100 MILES DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD-ZINC-SILVER DEPOSIT Panwa (Kachin) Pb,Zn -1.06% 12.5 million (Possible) Bawdwin (Shan North) Pb,Zn -5% 12.8 million (Probable) Yadanatheingi (Shan North) Bawsaing (Shan North)Paungdaw (Mandalay) Mawhki (Kayin) Zn - 0.3% 0.332 million (Possible) LonChein(Shan South) Zn - 36% 0.234million (Possible) Phaleng(Shan North) 12 Lead-Zinc-Silver Deposits -more than 100 occurrences of Pb-Zn-Silver mineralization in Myanmar -mineralization occurs as five different styles 1. Volcanogenic massive sulphides type(VMS) at Bawdwin mine 2. Massissippi valley type deposit at Bawsaing mine 3. Cavity filling vein-type in Yadanatheingi mine 4. in veins and skarn type near the contact between granitic rock and marble at Phaungdaw mine 5. Zinc carbonate deposit (secondary deposit) at Long Hken mine
  7. 7. 2/18/2013 7 13 Phaungdaw Bawdwin Panwa Bawsaing Panwa Bawdwin Phaungdaw Bawsaing Yadanatheingi Longhken Yadanatheingi Lead deposits zinc deposits Bawdwin Mine The LargLargest Lead-Zinc-SilverMine in Myanmar
  8. 8. 2/18/2013 8 15 Marmion Shaft 00 (Above sea level 1000m) Tiger Tunnel Bawsaing Pb‐Zn Mine, Southern Shan  State
  9. 9. 2/18/2013 9 • Tin-tungsten (primary, eluvial, alluvial types) associated with Mesozoic (mainly Jurassic) and Tertiary granite belt Mawchi Yangon Myitkyina Yangon Mawlamyine Dawei Myeik Kawthoung Loikaw Taunggyi Mandalay Kengtong 020 20 40 60 80 100 MIl es 98 1009694 28 26 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 14 13 12 11 92 94 96 98 100 102 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 10292 15 Lashio Tachileik Muse Index Tin & Tungsten 19 10 C H IN A INDIA L A O S THAILAND Bay ofBengal Gulf of Mottama N Kanbauk Harmyingyi Palaw Tanintharyi Thabawleikgyi Bokpyin Lenya Karathuri Maliwun Lampi Island Yay Paung Pyinmana Mawchi Namhkam Mongyawng Kazat Hpa-An Monghsat Western Granitoid Belt ‐Cretaceous to Lower Eocene ‐characterized by high‐level  intrusions associated with  Porphyry Cu (Au) related,  younger volcanics ‐emplaced as a magmatic‐ volcanic arc GRANITOID BELTS & Sn-W OCCURENCES OF MYANMAR (after Khin Zaw ,1990) Central Granitoid Belt ‐Upper Cretaceous to Lower  Eocene ‐characterized by mesozonal plutons associated with vein type Sn‐W deposits  ‐associated with abundant  pegmatites and aplites and rare  co‐magmatic volcanics Eastern Granitoid Belt ‐? Triassic ‐characterized by medium to  coarsely porphyritic ‐mesozonal and Sn‐W bearing  granites 18 Tin-tungsten Deposits -one of the most important mineral resources in Myanmar -occurs along the granitic belt in SE Asia peninsula (distributed over more than 1200 Km in Myanmar with more prominent in Tungsten toward the north, -passing through the Tanintharyi Division, Kayin, Mon, Kayah & Shan states and east of Pyinmana. -Tin-tungsten ores occur in close association with granitoids and related pneumatolytic rocks emplaced during Jurassic, Cretaceous and possibly Triassic. The country rocks of these intrusive masses consist of the clastic Mergui Series, Taungnyo Group, Mawchi Series and Lebyin Group. -Most of the cassiterite is mined from placers while tungsten is mined from hard rock veins.
  10. 10. 2/18/2013 10 Myitkyina Yangon Mawlamyine Dawei Myeik Kawthoung Loikaw Taunggyi Mandalay Kengtong 020 20 40 60 80 100 MIl es 98 1009694 28 26 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 14 13 12 11 92 94 96 98 100 102 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 10292 15 Lashio Tachileik Muse Index Tin & Tungsten 19 10 C H IN A INDIA L A O S THAILAND BayofBengal Gulf of Mottama N Kanbauk Harmyingyi Palaw Tanintharyi Thabawleikgyi Bokpyin Lenya Karathuri Maliwun Lampi Island Yay Paung Pyinmana Mawchi Namhkam Mongyawng Kazat Hpa-An Monghsat DISTRIBUTION OF TIN - TUNGSTEN DEPOSITS Heinze (Placer) Kanbauk ( Primary/ Placer) Hermyingyi (Primary) Heinda (Placer tin deposit) KyaukmeTaung, Pagaye(Placer) Theindaw(Placer) Manawlon(Placer) Atwin Bokpyin (Placer) Mawchi (Primary) Padatchaung (Primary) Tin- Tungsten occurrences= 480 Sn-W deposits, mainly associated with granitic intrusions along the tanintharyi and western margin of shan plateau Hermyingyi Sn-W mine, Dawei
  11. 11. 2/18/2013 11 Heinda mine, Dawei Bucket Dredger in Tin- tungsten mining Mawchi Sn-W mine, Kayah State
  12. 12. 2/18/2013 12 Mineralized vein, Mawchi mine (Loc: Level‐4, vein no.15) Tourmaline segregation granite granite Putao Myitkyina Bamo Mawlaik YANGON Mawlamyaing Dawei Kawthaung Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Haka Sittwe Pathein 98 1009694 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 92 94 96 98 100 102 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 10292 Tachileik CHIN A LAOS THAILAND INDIA BayofBengal Mabein Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw N Gulf of Matabin Magwe INDEX Shwegu Sumprabum Kawlin Taguang Kyaukme Pangyan MaingyaungYatsauk Kyaukse Laymyetna Sinbo Sawlawt Muse Salingyi Hpa An Copper Thabeikkyin Hkamti Homalin 10 Sagaing Myeik Linkay Pyawbwe Kutkhaing 020 20 40 60 80 100 MILE DITRIBUTION OF COPPER DEPOSITS Sinbo- NankesanKyesinTaung Cu - 0.77 % 66.5 million (Possible) Shangalon Cu -0.23 % 9 million (Possible) SabeTaung & south Cu - 0.7 to1.01 % 27.86 million (Possible) Letpadaung Cu - 0.4 % 1478 million (Possible) Laymyetna Cu - 0.8 to 2 % 0.28 million (Possible) Sabe Taung Cu - 1.51 % 0.88 million (Possible) Kweeight Taung Panmakut Manna Panpwe KyaukTaung Potential area -more than 50 occurrences copper mineralization in Myanmar -The copper mineralization within the central volcanic arc started from Mt. Popa and passes through lower Chindwin area where the volcanics are hosted to the porphyry copper deposits at the Sabe Taung, Kyesin Taung, & Lepadaung Taung, Monywa.
  13. 13. 2/18/2013 13 Copper district geology 252/18/2013 26 Monywa Copper Mine (open-pit mine)
  14. 14. 2/18/2013 14 27 Cathode Copper from Monywa Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Mawlaik Yangon Mawlamyaing Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Taungoo Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Sittwe Pathein 94 28° 92° Muse CHINA LAOS THAI INDIA BayofBengal Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw N Gulf of Matabin INDEX Gold (Primary) Magwe Sumprabum Shwegu Tanaing Mongmit Thabeikkyin Mabein Pyinmana Yamethin Letpadan Shwekyin Kyaikto Kawlin Pinlebu Homalin Gold (Placer) Hpa An Sagaing Haka Platinum 96 98 100 102 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 94°92° 96° 98° 100° 102° DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD- PLATINUM DEPOSITS Shadusuik (Kachin) Pt + Pd Ngagyan (Kachin) Pt + Pd Namma- Kangon (Kachin) Au - 0.13 gm/cu-yd 1.05 million Cu. Yd(Possible) Wakan- Tanaing (Kachin) Au - 0.04 gm/cu-yd 0.023 million Cu. Yd (Possible) Shangalon (Sagaing) Au - 1.4-12 ppm 0.02 million (Possible) Kyaukpahto Au - 3 ppm 6 million tons (Probable) Kwinthonse (Mandalay) Au - 2-4 ppm 1.4 million (Probable) Phayaungtaung (Mandalay) Au - 4 ppm 3.7 million (Probable) Moedi Taung (Mandalay) Au - 15- 27 ppm Shwegyin (Bago) Au - 0.1-0.35 gm/yd3 1.2 million Cu.yd. (Probable) Pyinmana (Mandalay) Meyongyi (Mon State)
  15. 15. 2/18/2013 15 29 (1) Mesothermal gold-quartz lode, porphyry style Cu-Au & its related Epithermal Au along the central magmatic arc. (2) Sediment-hosted epithermal Au mineralization along the Sagaing fault zone. (3) Mesothermal and epithermal gold mineralization in Tagaung Myitkyina belt (4) Au(Cu) skarn & Mesothermal veins in marble, gneiss and granite within the Mogok metamorphic belt (5) Slate belt style Mesothermal gold-quartz veins in Chaung Magyi & Mergui Groups. PRIMARY GOLD DEPOSITS/OCCURRENCES IN MYANMAR 30 PRESENT SITUATION OF THE KYAUKPAHTO GOLD MINE, LOOKING SOUTH
  16. 16. 2/18/2013 16 stockwork quartz veining in massive sandstone, Kyaukpahto mine banded quartz vein in gritty sandstone, Kyaukpahto mine silicified breccia ore, KPD-3, 11.6-m depth quartz vein in clay-altered sandstone Geologic cross- section, 10375 mN Line, Kyaukpahto mine Gold distribution, 10375 mN Line
  17. 17. 2/18/2013 17 Moditaung gold  mine Segment of Au-bearing quartz vein on 950m level at Htongyitaung, 40cm@11 g/t, looking SE. 2/18/2013 33 • Coarse visible gold commonly present in veins assaying over 30g/t Au • Gold not encapsulated in pyrite. • Gold is frequently observed in hand specimens in both the oxide and sulphide zones. laminated book & ribbon vein. 77cm@122 to 575g/t below oxide zone. Htongyi Taung 950m level Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Mawlaik Yangon Mawlamyaing Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Taungoo Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Sittwe Pathein 28° Muse CHINA LAOS THAILAND INDIA BayofBengal Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw Gulf of Matabin INDEX Magwe Sumprabum Shwegu Tanaing Mongmit Thabeikkyin Mabein Pyinmana Yamethin Letpadan Shwekyin Kyaikto Kawlin Pinlebu Homalin Hpa An Sagaing Haka 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° Iron IRON Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Yangon Mawlamyaing Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Sittwe Pathein 28° Muse CHINA LAOS THAILAND INDIA BayofBengal Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw Gulf of Matabin INDEX Magwe Sumprabum Shwegu Tanaing Thabeikkyin Mabein Yamethin Letpadan Kawlin Homalin Hpa An Sagaing Haka 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 94°92° 96° 98° 100° 102° Manganese N Tachileik Monghpayak Manganese
  18. 18. 2/18/2013 18 Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Mawlaik Yangon Mawlamyaing Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Taungoo Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Sittwe Pathein 94° 28° 92° Muse CHINA LAOS THAILAND INDIA BayofBengal Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw Gulf of Matabin INDEX Magwe Sumprabum Shwegu Tanaing Mongmit Thabeikkyin Mabein Pyinmana Yamethin Letpadan Shwekyin Kyaikto Kawlin Pinlebu Homalin Hpa An Sagaing Haka 96° 98° 100° 102° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 94°92° 96° 98° 100° 102° Iron 020 20 40 60 80 100 MILES DISTRIBUTION OF IRON DEPOSITS Kathaing Taung (Kachin) Fe -50.56 % 223 million (Probable)`` Lamaung (Kachin) Fe -51.54% 8.9 million (Probable) Kantawyan(Kachin) Fe -49-69% 2.354 million (Possible) Sanleik (Kachin) Lim. 10 million (Potential) Taungkaton Taung (Kachin) Fe -37- 45 % 2.3million (Potential) TaungNyo Taung (Kachin) Fe -40.67 % 18.9 million (Potential) Haemaung (Kachin) Fe -45.93 % 1.1 million (Potential) Kho Island (Tanintharyi) Fe -46.05 % 7.6 million (Probable) Iron Maputae Island (Tanintharyi) Fe -42 % 1 million (Probable) Kanmaw Island(Tanintharyi) Fe -36 % 21.2 million (Probable) Minlan Thanseik, ShweGyin (Bago) Fe -28-56.7 %(Lim,) 75.53 million (Possible) Kyatwinye, Inya (Mandalay) Fe- 54 % 3.7+ 4.5 million (Probable) Pinpet (Shan South) Fe -56.4 %( He,Lim) 80 million (Probable) Mongkannwe (Shan East) Fe -39- 66 % 21.5 million (Potential) Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Yangon Mawlamyaing Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Sittwe Pathein 94° 28° 92° Muse CHINA LAOS THAILAND IND IA BayofBengal Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw Gulf of Matabin INDEX Magwe Sumprabum Shwegu Tanaing Thabeikkyin Mabein Yamethin Letpadan Kawlin Homalin Hpa An Sagaing Haka 96° 98° 100° 102° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 94°92° 96° 98° 100° 102° Manganese N 020 20 40 60 80 100 MILES Tachileik Monghpayak DISTRIBUTION OF MANGANESE DEPOSITS Powel Island(Tanintharyi) Mn - 27% 2.8 million (Probable) Wansalot (Shan East) Mn - 14% 0.135 million (Possible) Kyaukpadaung (Mandalay) Monpyin (Shan South) Tar Pin (Shan East) Mn - 6.6% 0.65 million (Possible) Wansaw -Wanpaing (Shan East) Mn - 12.53% 4.95 million (Possible) Manganese Occurrences= 52 Areye (Shan East) Mn - 25% 1 million (Possible)
  19. 19. 2/18/2013 19 Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Mawlaik Yangon Mawlamyaing Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Taungoo Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Sittwe Pathein 94° 28° 92° Muse CHINA LAOS THAILAND INDIA BayofBengal Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw Gulf of Matabin INDEX Magwe Sumprabum Shwegu Tanaing Mongmit Thabeikkyin Mabein Pyinmana Yamethin Letpadan Shwekyin Kyaikto Kawlin Pinlebu Homalin Hpa An Sagaing Haka 96° 98° 100° 102° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 94°92° 96° 98° 100° 102° Nickel N Chromite 020 20 40 60 80 100 MILES DISTRIBUTION OF CHROMITE OCCURRENCES Chromite Occurrences = 43 DISTRIBUTION OF NICKEL DEPOSITS Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Mawlaik Katha Yangon Mawlamyine Dawei Kawthaung Taungoo Pyay Taunggyi Loikaw Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Haka Sittwe Pathain 020 20 40 60 100 miles80 98º 100º96º94º 28º 26º 24º 22º 20º 18º 16º 14º 12º 10º 102º92º Lashio Magwe Tachileik Muse INDEX N THAI LAO INDIA CHINA Tiddin Kale Shwegu Tagaung Gangaw Saw Sidoktaya Ngape Mindon ausmu fyef;awmi f; Nickel Hopin Hpa-An Bago Sagaing Myeik Bokpyin 98º 100º96º94º 102º92º 28º 26º 24º 22º 20º 18º 16º 14º 12º 10º MWETAUNG Ni- 1.19% 110 mt (Probable) MAUNGDAW-NANMADAW Ni- 0.41% 0.49 mt (Possible) MINDINKYIN Ni- 0.45% 0.02 mt (Possible) UKINTAUNG,HKAKYINTAUNG Ni- 0.4% 0.046 mt (Possible) INDAWGYI Ni- 0.41% 5.0 mt (Possible) TAUNGGADON Ni- 0.67% 0.028 mt Possible) TAGAUNGTAUNG Ni- 2.06% 40 mt (Possible) Nickel Occurrences =14 Ni-Cr mineralization occurs in close association with ultramafic igneous rocks emplaced during LateCretaceous-Early Eocene. At Mwetaung & Tagaung Taung, the deposits have formed as a result of tropical weathering of ultramafic rocks (Ni laterite deposits) Cromite deposits are of widespread occurrences in Myanmar being related to N-S trending ophiolite lines.
  20. 20. 2/18/2013 20 Tagaung Nickel Project Nickel laterite mine site Processing Plant Resource estimation- 40 mt with ~ 2.0 % Ni TAGAUNGTAUNG Ni- 2.06% 40 mt (Possible) Putao Myitkyina Bhamo Mawlaik Yangon Mawlamyaing Dawei Myeik Kawthaung Taungoo Pyay Monywa Mandalay Kengtung Sittwe Pathein 94° 28° 92° Muse CHINA LAOS THAILAND INDIA BayofBengal Lashio Taunggyi Loikaw Gulf of Matabin INDEX Magwe Sumprabum Shwegu Tanaing Mongmit Thabeikkyin Mabein Pyinmana Yamethin Letpadan Shwekyin Kyaikto Kawlin Pinlebu Homalin Hpa An Sagaing Haka 96° 98° 100° 102° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 94°92° 96° 98° 100° 102° Antimony 020 20 40 60 80 100 MIles DISTRIBUTION OF ANTIMONY DEPOSITS Konsut,Kayah Peinchit,Kayah Laga,Kayin Thabyu,Mon Lebyin,Mandalay Nahok,Shan Mong Inn,Shan Kadaik, Mon Liharmyar, Hopone Antimony depositsAntimony deposits -More than 140 occurrences of stibnite and other sb-bearing minerals are known in Myanmar. -The majority of antimony mineralization occurs in the late Paleozoic carbonates (Triassic to Permian in age) & also in the late Pleozoic clastic sediments of the Mergui series. -generally found in veins or lenses, or both. -So far, the best known antimony deposit s are at Thabyu, Kayin State, near Thai Border. The ore is reported to be of high grade.
  21. 21. 2/18/2013 21 Antimony mine, Hopone area, Shan State Myintkyina Mawleik YANGON DaweI Mandalay KengTong Sattwe 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 92° 94° 96 ° 98° 100° 102° 10° 12° 14° 16° 18° 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° CHIN A THAILAND INDIA Lashio Taunggyi N ANDAMAN SEA Taninthari Saw Kawlin Hsipaw Tanyang Kyesi Tigyit MongTon TasuLrtpanhla Myeik Kalewa Kawthaung LAOS Bhamo Ingapu Putao Basin HukaungBasin Lwejel Basin Chindwin Basin Lashio Basin KyaingtonBasin Ingapu Basin Tigyit Basin Banchaung Basin Tanintharyi Basin Karathuri Basin Coal Basin Kyesi- Mansan Basin Tamakam Basin MongHsat Basin HticheyaBasin Loikaw Basin LEGEND Naungcho Basin Shwegu-Mabein Basin MongtonBasin TachileikBasin MongHkat Basin Kalaw Namsan Basin ShweboBasin Shwebo Minbu-SalinBasin Kalaw Pinlaung Basin Putao Myitkyina Mawleik YANGON Moulmein Dawe Kawthaung Mandalay Khaington Sittwe 60 28 26 24 14 12 92 94 96 98 100 102 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Lashio Taunggyi N ADAMAN SEA Magwe ausmufrD;aoG; Saw Pauk Kalewa Kawlin Hsipaw Kyethi Tigyit Maington Myeik Mankat Tanintharyi COAL BASINS OF MYANMAR COAL OCCURRENCES IN MYANMAR COAL Over 300 Coal occurrences were being found 184 Coal deposits were being estimated to be 480 mt
  22. 22. 2/18/2013 22 Coal fields, Kalewa-Mawleik area Coal exposures, Kalewa-Mawleik area Kalaywa Coal Mine Namma Coal Mine
  23. 23. 2/18/2013 23 Myitkyina Putao Mogok Bamah Nyaungcho Lashio Katha Monywa MandalaySagaing Taunggyi Kyaingtong Loikaw Magwe Pathein Bago Yangon Paan Mawlamyaing Dawe Myeik Kawthaung Haka Kawlin Manpan Pyay Sittwe Tachileik Clay Baryte Bauxite Phosphate Kyunhla Kalaw Pindaya Linkhay Yemathin CLAY, BARYTE, BAUXITE AND PHOSPHATE N INDIA C H IN A L A O S THAILAND BayofBengal Gulf of Mottama Index Gypsum 98 1009694 10292 98° 100°96°94° 102°92° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° 28° 26° 24° 22° 20° 18° 16° 14° 12° 10° Mawlamyine Yangon Bago Myeik Kawthoung Dawei Tanintharyi Kengtong Tachileik Mongphyat Kwanlon Lashio Bhamo Mindon Ngape Loikaw Magwe Mandalay Sagaing Kyaukse Pindaya Pyinmana Pha-an Hlaingbwe Shwekyin TaunggyiKalaw Myitkyina Putao Sumprabum Mawlaik Sinbo Shwegu Sittwe Yinmabin GangawHaka Thabeikkyin Khin-U Tetain Kyaukphyu Gwa Kyankhin Pyay Pathein Ngaputaw GYPSUM M yeik 92H 102 94H 96H 100H 102H 10H 12H 14H 16H 18H 20H 22H 24H 26H 28H 10H 12H 14H 16H 18H 20H 22H 24H 26H 28H L ashio T aunggyi K yaukse M on ywa B am or Muse K yaington M ag we L oikaw Pyinm ana M yitk yina P utaO T itein H aka S ittwe P yawb we P yi P and aung P athein Yangon B ago Mawlamyaing Da we K awthaung ADAM AN SEA BAYOFBANGAL INDEX L imesto ne LAOST achileik CHINA INDIA K unlong K atha T heikbeikk yin K yaukpyu THAILAND P aan M andalay LIMESTONE Lime stone deposits = 452
  24. 24. 2/18/2013 24 47 Mogok Ruby , Sapphire Shan-Thai Block Rakhine Coastal Strip Jade Mine area Amber Mongshu Ruby Gemstones of Myanmar Mogok gemstone tract : Ruby, sapphire and spinel occur as primary minerals in marble, calc-silicates and as well as obtained from placers in eluvial and alluvial sediments. Jade mine area: Jadeite-albite dykes and veins intruded into serpentinite bodies at the Tawmaw- Lonkin area, Burmese amber (Burmite): The major occurrences are located in the Hukwng valley - -other ruby occurrences are Nayaseik and Pyinlon.504.5cts ruby 2/18/2013 48 Jade sale in mid. Year Emporium, 2009
  25. 25. 2/18/2013 25 2/18/2013 49 Jade mine site, Phakant 2/18/2013 50 Jade mine (Aerial View)
  26. 26. 2/18/2013 26 RUBY from Mogok Gemstone Tract Mongshu Ruby Mine site
  27. 27. 2/18/2013 27 2013/2/18 uefUowf 53 RUBY, Mid. Year Emporium,2011 Sapphire from Mogok Gemstone Tract Assorted Gemstones from Mogok Area 54
  28. 28. 2/18/2013 28 2/18/2013 55 MINERAL POLICYMINERAL POLICY To boost up present production To invite participation in terms of technical know-how and investment from sources within the country and abroad to fulfill the domestic requirements and to increase export by producing more mineral products; Conclusion Myanmar - within the complex tectonic zone of active obloique convergent between Asian and Indian plates exhibits the great diversity of geology, Physiography, structural deformation and as well as episodic mineralization events and various mineral commodities. The mineral resources include Sn-W, base metals to precious to rare metals, industrial raw minerals, jade & gemstones, and as well as coal , oil &gas. But most of them are needed to be explored and proved systematically. We hope there’ll be more cooperation between Myanmar and Your Country in the near future. 56



    Myanmar's Mining Industry Dr. Neal Reynolds Director Exploration & Evaluation CSA Global Realities and Visions for the Future

    1. 1. Myanmar’s Mining Industry www.csaglobal.com 1 Dr. Neal Reynolds Director Exploration & Evaluation CSA Global 18/11/2014 Realities and Visions for the Future
    2. 2. Introduction Assessment of realities and future challenges for the Myanmar mining industry based on: • More than 14 years experience in Myanmar; • More than 20 years experience in mainland SE Asia; • Breadth of experience from project generation through exploration to m
  1. ining CSA Global • International mining industry consultancy with offices in Perth, Brisbane, Jakarta, London, Johannesburg, Vancouver, and Moscow; • Provides geological and engineering services across the industry spectrum from regional exploration to feasibility and mining; • Specialist expertise in SE Asia with extensive project experience in all the ASEAN countries.
  2. 3. Flashback! PDAC Toronto March 2003 • First green shoots of the 2000’s mining boom at the largest global mining industry convention • SE Asia forum – CSA presentation on Myanmar • Followed apparent liberalisation moves in 2002 • False dawn and the investment door slammed shut again in 2004
  3. 4. Flashback! PDAC Toronto March 2003 WHAT IS DIFFERENT THIS TIME? DO RECENT CHANGES BRING A REAL OPPORTUNITY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A MODERN MINING INDUSTRY IN MYANMAR, OR ANOTHER FALSE DAWN?
  4. 5. Myanmar Mining Industry - Historical • The Golden Land – production of gold, silver, copper, lead, etc. from ancient times • Rubies and jade – Mogok and Hpakant • Important trade routes between India and China
  5. 6. British Colonial Period c. 1824—1948 Lead, Zinc and Silver • Bawdwin Mine and Nam Tu smelter – 1918-38; major producer of Pb, Zn, and Ag • Bawsaing district Pb-Ag and barite Tin and Tungsten (SE Asia Tin Belt) • Tenasserim – Heinda, Hermingyi, etc.; extensive (palaeo) alluvial production, limited hard-rock mining • Mawchi W-Sn narrow-vein mine Gold • Small scale, alluvial and hard rock • Kyaukpazat district Oil – Burmah Oil Company Mawchi Tungsten Mine, 2012 Bawdwin Mine
  6. 7. Independence & Nationalisation 1948-1988 • Post-war and post- independence ongoing decline in mine production from colonial levels • 1963 nationalisation and socialist period; Mining Enterprises established • 1970’s Colombo plan/UN-aided mapping and exploration • Monywa – Yugoslavia-Myanmar RTB Bor-ME1 joint venture began operations in 1985 • Kyaukpahto Au deposit discovered c. 1980 and developed with Yugoslav assistance from 1982 to 1993 • Both operations were failures From Myanmar government website, 2003
  7. 8. Exploration “Mini-boom” 1994-1997 • New Investment law (1988) and Mining Law (1994). • Mid-90’s tender-block rounds. • Industry enthusiasm amidst the global boom – exploration and mining interest and investment by majors (Newmont), mid-tiers (Ivanhoe) but mostly by juniors. • Monywa – Ivanhoe re-opened the mine in 1998 under a 50:50 JV with ME1 as modern heap-leach SX-EW operation producing 25,000 tpa cathode copper upgraded to 40,000 tpa in 2004 • Kyaukpahto – short-lived investment by Newmont. • First modern exploration in Myanmar, but limited in scope and extent. • Terminated by 1997-1998 global exploration industry collapse and prolonged subsequent downturn. • Cyanide ban introduced Kysintaung open-pit and leach pads, Monywa SX-EW copper cathode production, Monywa
  8. 9. Resources “Super-cycle” 2004—2011 • Momentum for political liberalisation in Myanmar reversed in 2004 just as the “super-cycle” gathered pace • Sanctions and changes in regulations militated against foreign investment – e.g. Commercial Tax and Production Sharing Contracts • Investment effectively ceased; Ivanhoe pulled out of Monywa in 2007 and lost the Modi Taung Gold project • Mining Enterprise mines and projects privatised – local companies (e.g. Asia World, Eternal Mining) with or without Asian or Russian JV partners • Chinese investment focused on known deposits, e.g. Tagaung Taung Ni laterite, Monywa, Bawdwin, Nam Tu slags; also Russian, Thai etc. investors Kyaukpahto Mine, 2004 COMEX Cu 1993-2012
  9. 10. Current Realities • Myanmar missed the mining boom(s) and remains almost entirely unexplored • Requirement for Production Sharing Contracts, high rental rates, short licence terms etc. make risk investment in exploration commercially untenable • Underdeveloped mining industry relative to potential  Production remains at a very low level in terms of quantity and quality  Monywa (now Chinese-controlled) is still the only significant modern mining operation in the country; planned Letpadaung development and expansion to 200,000 tpa Cu has not yet occurred  Tagaung Taung Ni project also Chinese owned • Political change and broadly favourable 2012 Foreign Investment Law – renewed mining investment interest but no MIC licences issued for exploration/mining • 1994 Mining Law still in place and can provide a framework for acceptable “Contract of Work” based exploration title  but more changes are needed to attract serious explorers Gegalaw artisanal gold mining and cyanide leaching, 2009
  10. 11. Future – Realising the Potential? • Irreversible political change has occurred • New discoveries and development requires risk investment • Minimal past exploration means there is no pipeline of development projects; need to incentivise high-risk investment in high-risk brownfields and greenfields exploration • Attracting foreign risk investment requires changes to the Mining Law and regulations  PSC’s, signature bonus, high rental rates etc. v. terms that encourage exploration dollars in the ground and new discovery  Promote high-risk investment and attract quality technically-focused explorers  Improve Mines Department capacity to transparently administer licensing system Gegalaw artisanal gold mine, 2009 • Minimal past exploration enhances opportunities for shallow discovery  For what commodities? Where?  What is the real mineral potential of Myanmar and, with investment, can it underpin a modern mining industry?
  11. 12. Mineral Potential and Tectonic Setting • SE Asia comprises a collage of tectonic plates separated from Gondwana and accreted to Asia from the Cambrian to the Cenozoic. • Understanding mineral potential is directly related to:  Understanding this tectonic evolution and related metallogeny  Understanding deposit preservation potential related to uplift and erosion, especially for epithermal Au and porphyry Cu systems • Provides the basis for target belt prioritisation • Knowledge from the surrounding region can be used, especially where limited information in Myanmar • Significant metallic deposits of Cu, Au, Zn- Pb-Ag, and Sn-W exist within the country or in metallogenic belts that run into the country Jiama Cu-Mo-Au Chatree Au Yulong Cu-Mo-Au Monywa Cu Davoy Sn-W Bawdwin Pb-Zn-Ag Sopokomil Zn-Pb Kinta Valley Sn-W Sepon Cu, Au Phukham Cu-Au Laocang Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag
  12. 13. Gold Potential • Permo-Triassic volcanic arc belt, Eastern Shan State  Epithermal potential; Mae Chan etc. in Thailand  Gold-rich VHMS; Dapingzhang (2g/t Au), Nam Rin (Ba-Au, Thailand), Tasek Chini (Malaysia) • Triassic Indosinian orogeny in the “Slate Belt”  Orogenic gold, e.g. Modi Taung, Shwegyin alluvials, Russell Island etc.; high grade, low tonnage • Cretaceous collision and deformation in the Central Myanmar Arc  Orogenic gold, Kyaukpazat, Legyin etc. – extensive narrow-vein gold systems; high grade, low tonnage Modi Taung Chatree Kyaukpazat Mae Chan Dapingzhang Nam Rin Russell Island
  13. 14. Gold Potential • Palaeogene volcanic centres along the Central Myanmar Arc  Epithermal gold  Kachin segment; Setgadone etc. • Neogene extensional magmatism along the Sagaing Fault zone  Epithermal and sediment-hosted gold e.g. Kyaukpahto (>6Mt at 3g/t), Gegalaw • Neogene transcurrent faulting and magmatism in the Mogok metamorphic belt (Shan scarps)  Mesothermal gold, IRG/skarn? – Kwinthonze, Tayetkhone, Kyaikto  Epithermal potential – Tengchong- type young volcanic centres? Kyaukpahto Tengchong Setgadone Monywa Kyaikto Kwinthonze Thayetkhone
  14. 15. Copper Potential • Cambro-Ordovician volcanic centres  Bawdwin polymetallic VHMS • Permo-Triassic arc and back-arc volcanism in the Sukothai and Changning-Menglian belts – VHMS; in China  Dapingzhang (c. 63 Mt at 0.8% Cu)  Yagra (c. 1 Mt cont. Cu) • Triassic fore-arc – Lemyethna Cu-Au Bawdwin Dapingzhang Phu Kham Phu Thep Laocang Dongchuan Dahongshan Yagra Xuejiping Lemyethna Nam Rin
  15. 16. Copper Potential • Palaeogene sub-aerial volcanic centres along the Central Myanmar Arc  Monywa high-sulphidation epithermal copper deposit (early Miocene); c. 1.88 Bt at 0.37% Cu, Letpadaung, Sabetaung, and Kysintaung deposits  Shangalon Cu-Au porphyry (Oligocene) • Kachin Arc segment; correlated with Gangdese arc in Tibet  Jiama (Tibet; 1.17 Bt at 0.41% Cu, 0.04% Mo, 0.1g/t Au) • Mogok Belt Neogene transcurrent faulting and magmatism  Minor skarn copper-polymetallic mineralisation Shangalon Kachin Arc Monywa Jiama
  16. 17. Zn-Pb-Ag Potential • Cambro-Ordovician rhyolitic volcanic centres on the western margins of the Shan-Thai block - VHMS  Bawdwin (“silver pit”) polymetallic VHMS(?); 1938 reserve 10.8 Mt at 22.8% Pb, 13.9% Zn, 1.05% Cu and 670 g/t Ag – biggest global producer of Pb and Ag before WW2  Large lower-grade ‘halo’ resource reported by Mandalay Mining in 1997 • Potential outside the Bawdwin volcanic centre; unrecognised volcanic centres? • Vein-hosted deposits in Precambrian and Cambrian clastics  Yadanatheingyi etc. Bawdwin Yadanatheingyi
  17. 18. Zn-Pb-Ag Potential • Early Ordovician carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba deposits over 1000 km of strike from Kanchanaburi to western Yunnan (Baoshan) • Broadly “Irish-type” in a back-arc setting? • Bawsaing district – extensive old barite, lead and zinc mines • Shan State; Lufang etc.? • Thailand - Kanchanaburi; Song Toh, Bo Yai global resources >8 Mt at c. 7% Pb, 3% Zn and 100g/t Ag • Thailand - Li; Phu Mai Tong barite mine, Mae Chong Zn-Pb-Ag-Ba deposit • Yunnan; Shizishan, Menxing, Dongshan etc. Bawdwin Long Keng Bawsaing Kanchanaburi Li Mengxing Lufang Yadanatheingyi
  18. 19. Zn-Pb-Ag Potential • Permo-Triassic back-arc volcanism in eastern Shan State; polymetallic VHMS in Sukothai and Changning- Menglian belts  Laocang, Yunnan, c. 20 Mt at 4.3% Zn, 6.6% Pb, 151 g/t Ag and 0.11% Cu) • Indosinian Triassic MVT?  Long Keng oxide Zn deposit c. 0.2 Mt at 35% Zn • Cretaceous MVT in Thailand  Padaeng (Mae Sod) oxide Zn deposit c. 1.7 Mt contained Zn Dapingzhang Long Keng Padaeng Laocang Daliangzi Huize Yagra Jinding Mawki Lufang Nam Rin
  19. 20. Sn-W Potential • SE Asian Tin Belt (c. 2800 km) total estimated production c. 9.6 Mt of tin, or 54% of the world's tin production • Most Sn-W in Myanmar is from Late Cretaceous Western Province granite- related mineralisation in Tanintharyi • Most Sn production from Mio-Pliocene alluvial and eluvial palaeo-placers, e.g. Heinda and offshore dredging • Lesser production from modern placers • Relatively minor primary production from Sn-W greisen and vein deposits, e.g. Hermingyi, Kanbauk • Tungsten-rich deposits on the eastern side of the belt; e.g. Mawchi, Mae Lama (Thailand) • Unrealised primary potential – greisen and skarn? Pyinmana Tengchong Mawchi Hermingyi Ban Phontiou Mae Lama Doi Mok Geijiu Khao Soon Dulong Phuket Heinda Myeik Nui Phao
  20. 21. Ni, Cr, PGM Potential • Extensive ophiolite belts related to Indian collision event; mostly steeply dipping and dismembered ultramafics  Tagaung Taung lateritic nickel deposit; c. 40 Mt at 2% Ni  Mwetaung lateritic nickel deposit; c. 36 Mt at 1.5% Ni  Relatively small and moderate grade deposits, mainly saprolite; high capital and power costs • Widespread small chromite deposits and occurrences • Alluvial PGM’s recorded at Indawgyi, Hukawng valley • Jadeite at Hpakant has provided one of Myanmar’s most valuable mineral exports Mwetaung Kachin Ophiolite Belt Indo-Burman Ophiolite Belt Song Da Rift Ban Phuc Tagaung Taung Hpakant Panxi Rift
  21. 22. Bulk Commodities Iron-ore • No significant deposits known • Potential for skarn magnetite exists in arc belts and associated with tin skarns • Enigmatic Pang Phet deposit with reported associated Cu and U; basement or Triassic hosted? Manganese • Eastern Shan state; volcanic or skarn- related? Bauxite • No significant reported occurrences Coal • Extensive low-grade sub-bituminous coal in western basin, Kalewa etc. • Small brown-coal deposits in fault basins on Shan plateau, e.g. Tigyit, Namma Tigyit coal deposit Coal in western basin Pang Pet Fe Mn & Fe production In E Shan Secondary Fe and Mn; Primary skarn?
  22. 23. Operating Framework • Common Law System • All minerals vested in the state; royalties are not fixed (precious metals 4-5%, base metals and ferrous metals 3-4%, negotiable) • 1994 Mining Law set the framework for individual contracts which included: • DGSE technical support at the exploration stage • Principal terms and conditions of production JV with one of the Mining Enterprises – equity participation with cost recovery • Prospecting, exploration and production periods (total up to 10 years) with expenditure commitments and progressive relinquishment • Investment Law sets framework for foreign investment; approval through Myanmar Investment Commission • Production Sharing Contracts, high level of ‘signature bonus’ and ‘dead rent’ and short licence terms a major disincentive to risk investment in exploration • Local support or participation essential in states and ethnic areas • Currently possible to acquire licences through local JV companies; no MIC licences have been issued • New Mining Law – when and what?? • How will foreign JV’s with non-state companies be accommodated?
  23. 24. Data & Services • Improved UTM topographic map coverage at 1:50,000 from modern aerial photography • Geological mapping limited in extent and quality • Almost no useful exploration data such as geochemical datasets or airborne geophysics • Limited technical professional experience especially in younger generation • Low level in-country exploration services, drilling and geophysics; increased foreign involvement in service companies • Services and equipment can be imported • Local service scope and availability will quickly improve if foreign investment in exploration picks up Geosan LLC Mongolian geophysicists with CMC team, Sagaing Project, 2005 Suntac diamond drill-rig, Legyin, 2009
  24. 25. Logistics • Poor infrastructure, but reversal of long- term decline has begun, and challenges can be overcome • Unreliable power supply, but substantial energy resources and improving supply • Difficult communications, but improving rapidly especially mobile coverage and internet access • Security restrictions are much reduced, but still an issue in some areas
  25. 26. Opportunities and Challenges • High geological potential for a number of commodities/deposit types, notably  Epithermal and porphyry Cu-Au in arc belts  Volcanic- and sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide  Sn-W greisen and skarn • Potential, especially for gold and copper, can be misunderstood, e.g. should not be compared directly with Indonesia • Improved geological and metallogenic understanding can be applied to support effective targeting models in ground selection and exploration • Paucity of detailed geology, maps or research, and limited understanding of several significant deposits and districts • Lack of past exploration implies opportunity for rapid discovery of outcropping orebodies using well-targeted basic techniques such as stream- sediment geochemistry and airborne geophysics • No data from past exploration to follow up or guide effective approaches • No regional-scale government geochemical or geophysical data • Artisanal gold operations provide a key targeting criterion in unexplored areas
  26. 27. Opportunities and Challenges • Improving political and investment environment • Limited understanding of the mining industry and incentivisation of exploration risk in bureaucracy and government • Bureaucracy supportive of mineral exploration investment • Mines Department is understaffed, under-resourced, and lacks experience in managing and regulating an active exploration and mining industry • 1994 Mining Law has provided the framework for exploration and development contracts providing a pathway to development with reasonable terms • Subsequent regulations are very unfavourable for exploration risk investment, e.g. PSC’s, high dead-rent, signature bonus, etc. • No ‘one-stop-shop’ – multiple departmental approvals required, central and regional and local government • New Investment Law favourable for foreign investment • TERMS OF THE NEW MINING LAW REMAIN UNCERTAIN BUT WILL BE CRITICAL IN DETERMINING THE FUTURE FOR MYANMAR’S MINING INDUSTRY • Role of states is a crucial uncertainty linked to substantive political issues • Environmental and community framework also remains poorly defined • EITI application is a positive indication of government intentions • Improved security situation and access in most peripheral regions • Problems and tensions remain in some areas
  27. 28. Opportunities and Challenges • Profusion of local businesses investing in mineral exploration as potential partners for foreign investors • Limited understanding of the exploration and mining business and a business environment and practices distorted by years of a military-controlled economy • Multiple stake-holders wanting a slice of the pie, especially in the ethnic regions • Unrealistic perceptions of value • Improving infrastructure and communications • Access in large parts of the country is slow and difficult • Unreliable power supply, but substantial energy resources and improving supply • Improved UTM topographic map coverage at 1:50,000 from modern aerial photography and availability of high resolution satellite imagery • Availability of geologists and workforce with a strong work ethic enthusiastic to learn and grasp opportunities; widespread use of English • Limited pool of commercially-focused technical experience, especially in mining • Service companies in country can provide support in geology and exploration, including limited geophysics and drilling • Service industry still at a low level, but ability to grow quickly
  28. 29. Flasback! PDAC Toronto March 2003 WHAT HAS CHANGED TEN YEARS LATER?
  29. 30. Flasback! PDAC Toronto March 2003 WHAT HAS CHANGED TEN YEARS LATER?
  30. 31. Opportunity for Myanmar – Closing Remarks • Myanmar has the geological potential to develop a significant mining industry • HIGH-RISK INVESTMENT IN EXPLORATION IS NEEDED IF MINING IS TO SERIOUSLY CONTRIBUTE TO THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF MYANMAR; THIS REQUIRES AN INVESTMENT REGIME THAT REWARDS RISK • An investment regime that encourages risk investment in exploration combined with effective social/environmental regulations will attract serious exploration and mining companies • Serious players may include large, mid-tier and well-managed technically- competent junior companies • Reputable companies will follow industry-standard best practice and understand the need to have a ‘social licence to operate’; this will deliver the best outcome in terms of economic return, social and environmental impact • JVs with local companies and use of local Myanmar service companies will help build a local responsible mining industry • Undiscovered and undeveloped mineral deposits are unrealised assets until they are developed and contribute to the economic and social development of the country • MINES WILL NOT BE DEVELOPED IF ECONOMICALLY UNREALISTIC PROCESSING AND REFINING REQUIREMENTS ARE DEMANDED
 

My Blog List